The task of SQL query equivalence checking is important in various real-world applications (including query rewriting and automated grading) that involve complex queries with integrity constraints; yet, state-of-the-art techniques are very limited in their capability of reasoning about complex features (e.g., those that involve sorting, case statement, rich integrity constraints, etc.) in real-life queries. To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first SMT-based approach and its implementation, VeriEQL, capable of proving and disproving bounded equivalence of complex SQL queries. VeriEQL is based on a new logical encoding that models query semantics over symbolic tuples using the theory of integers with uninterpreted functions. It is simple yet highly practical — our comprehensive evaluation on over 20,000 benchmarks shows that VeriEQL outperforms all state-of-the-art techniques by more than one order of magnitude in terms of the number of benchmarks that can be proved or disproved. VeriEQL can also generate counterexamples that facilitate many downstream tasks (such as finding serious bugs in systems like MySQL and Apache Calcite).